if you had any settings you wanted to retain from before you reinstalled (eg photos taken, SMS history, application high scores in games, call history etc) then these are contained in the backup that iTunes *should* have made the last time you synchronised the phone before you restored.
If any of this data is important to you, then you should make a backup of the backup straight away.
After that, you have two options:
Sync the backup back to the phone - this is the simplest but *can* reintroduce unwanted junk and can cause poor battery life/stability issues (less likely if you don't re-jailbreak).
Set up as new, then use a backup extraction utility to extract the key files/folders you want and then re-jailbreak. Install OpenSSH and use SFTP to copy the files/folders you want to restore to the phone.